Teacher and student talking during Scholars' Day

Scholars’ Day

View all of the 2020 AU Scholars’ Day Presentations

Read an abstract of all Scholars’ Day Presentations here. Click each poster for an expanded view.

EFFECTIVE STRATEGIES TO COMBAT THE EFFECTS OF TRAUMA IN THE CLASSROOM SETTING

Ashleigh Allison, Dr. Jeff Trotter*, and Dr. Anna Epperly*
Department of Teacher Education

The varying and competing definitions of trauma will be reviewed in relation to the Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) framework used to measure the amount of trauma children have experienced. The effects of trauma on the development of the brain in children will be emphasized, as well as physical, emotional, and behavioral effects experienced by these children. Trauma informed schools will be discussed as well as effective classroom strategies to respond to trauma will be described. Stakeholders in the P-12 school setting will be surveyed regarding their awareness and knowledge of trauma and use of trauma-informed practices.

FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH ADOLESCENT PREGNANCY IN THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC

Maggie Althoff
School of Nursing

The Dominican Republic is one of the most affected countries in Latin America by adolescent pregnancy, with 100 adolescent births (ages 15-19) out of every 1000 ​total​. The purpose of this study is to identify the factors associated with the unacceptably high rates of adolescent pregnancy in the Dominican. A​n extensive ​literature review was conducted to identify the most common themes among teenage pregnancy. The leading factors for an increased risk of adolescent pregnancy in the Dominican Republic include a lack of comprehensive sexual education and contraceptive care, sexual abuse and violence of adolescents, and a lack of self-esteem in adolescent females. The proposed design of the study, based on the literature review findings, is a qualitative, descriptive study that includes both surveys and interviews. The factors identified need to be addressed to reduce teen pregnancy rates and balance the inequities young women experience in the Dominican Republic.

AN ANALYSIS OF THE INTEREST RATE RISK OF VARIABLE RATE LOANS

Wyatt Althoff
Falls School of Business

Due to the recent volatility in interest rates, financial institutions’ worst fears regarding the interest rate risk surrounding loans will likely be coming true. Calculation of the interest rate risk of variable rate loans is more complicated than the calculation of duration and similar metrics used for measuring the same interest rate risk for fixed rate loans. This study investigates one way of analyzing the interest rate risk of variable rate loans using a basic understanding of the way financial institutions operate and amortization tables. The procedure used was recommended by an industry expert and proved successful in creating a basic model to evaluate. This model evaluates the changes in loan yield and from there could be used to calculate the potential changes in overall spread.

NON-REALIZABLE ROOT SEQUENCES OF FIFTH DEGREE POLYNOMIALS

Laura Batts, Megan Moran, Courtney K. Taylor*
Department of Mathematics

Rolle’s Theorem is a result from Calculus that locates the roots of the derivative of a continuous, differentiable function on a closed interval. By iterating this theorem a sequence can be produced containing the roots of all nontrivial derivatives of a polynomial. We investigated polynomials with distinct real roots, whose derivatives also all have distinct real roots. Although the ordering of these roots is constrained by the assertions of Rolle’s Theorem, surprisingly not all such root sequences exist. These root sequences, which are not prohibited by Rolle’s Theorem yet do not exist, are called non-realizable sequences. The current literature on non-realizable root sequences of polynomials is incomplete and unclear. Our research aims to establish elementary proofs for the non-realizability of root sequences for fifth degree polynomials. The results of our research confirmed previous work done by others while outlining a more clear, direct path showing the non-realizability of a specific root sequence involving the first and third derivatives.

THE EFFECTS OF VIDEO VS. IN-PERSON COMMUNICATION ON GROUP PROBLEM SOLVING

Taylor Brooks
Department of Psychology

This experiment focuses on the differences in problem solving and social presence when comparing video vs. in-person groups. The current experiment recruited 20 undergraduate students. Participants were randomly assigned to groups of two and given ten minutes to complete an analytical reasoning problem via video or in-person. Afterward, groups did a different problem. After each problem individuals filled out a Medium of Social Presence Questionnaire (MSP) (Tan et al., 2012). I hypothesized problem solving ability would be greater in-person. Results from my experiment indicated problem solving ability was not significantly different in either group. My second hypothesis stated that social presence would be greater in the in-person condition and results were consistent with this hypothesis. Further research in other settings is needed to better understand the differences between video and in-person communication in groups.

AGGRESSION, PEER PRESSURE, AND RECKLESS BEHAVIOR IN EMERGING ADULTS

Micah Bryan
Department of Psychology

Based on prior research that found relationships between proactive aggression and specific reckless behaviors and peer-pressure, the purpose of the current study is to examine general aggression and its relationship to general reckless behaviors, and whether peer-pressure is a moderator. This study targeted those in the age range of 18-25. Participants reported how aggressive they felt, how frequently they engaged in reckless behavior, and how pressured they felt in certain scenarios. A total of 100 young adults were recruited through Amazon Turk. Data were analyzed and it was found that aggression was a significant positive predictor of reckless behavior, Β=0.28, t=3.01, p<0.01. Peer pressure was not significantly correlated to recklessness at r=.03, p=0.80, or to aggression at r= -.02, p=0.86, and so was not analyzed in the regression. Future research should examine other social problem-solving measures.

KNOWLEDGE AND IMPLEMENTATION OF INJURY PREVENTION PROGRAMS IN HIGH SCHOOL BASKETBALL AND SOCCER COACHES

Emily Buchman and Morgan Reed
Department of Kinesiology

Injury prevention programs are a vital component of athletes being in optimal form. To construct an effective program, the etiology of sports-specific injuries is also important. High school, college and professional basketball and soccer each have unique injuries that are prevalent across all levels. Coaches must be compliant and knowledgeable for programs to be successful. However, knowledge can be improved in numerous areas. There are different aspects of injury prevention programs that help build athletes’ strength and prevent injuries. To assess coaches’ knowledge of programs and perception of responsibility, a survey was created for high school coaches in central Indiana. Therefore, the overall purpose of this research project was to assess overall knowledge in high school basketball and soccer coaches in central Indiana.

AUTONOMOUS EVKART

Ryan Burkholder, Caleb Conrad, Ryan Perkins, and Ryan Stuthers
Department of Physical Sciences & Engineering

The Autonomous Division of the evGrandPrix Competition allows university students the opportunity to develop self-driving electric go-karts for racing. This project is an excellent real-world, team-driven engineering design problem. Last year, the Anderson University Engineering program converted a human-driven go-kart into a remote control go-kart. This year, the team continued the last year’s progress and began the process of designing an autonomous go-kart. The autonomous design included the use of a LIDAR (a laser range finder) and the use of computer vision which both utilized a Jetson AGX processor to implement self-driving features. The Jetson communicated with a Mbed microcontroller to control electrical devices including throttle, steering, and brake actuation. Due to the 2020 evGrandPrix being canceled and the semester transitioning to e-learning after Spring Break, the team was unable to complete the goal of an autonomous evKart. The team has documented its work for future students to continue the project. The goal is that future engineering students can put the final remaining pieces together to complete the autonomous evKart.

THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PARENTAL DEPRESSION AND STRESS COPING IN COLLEGE-AGE CHILDREN

Nicole D. Chesterson
Department of Psychology

The purpose of the current study was to examine parental depression and stress coping skills in children. Participants (n=115) were students at Anderson University. I hypothesized that college-age children who have a parent/guardian with depression would have higher dysfunctional coping scores and lower positive coping scores than children without a parent/guardian with depression. Participants completed an online survey that included the Brief COPE (Carver, 1997). The survey also asked some questions regarding parent/guardian depression. Results indicated that there was not a significant relationship between parental depression and dysfunctional coping. A significant relationship was found between parental depression and positive coping, with those who did have a parent or guardian with depression reporting lower positive coping scores. These findings are important for health care professionals and families.

SENSE OF BELONGING AND ON-CAMPUS INVOLVEMENT

Grace Culver
Department of Psychology

The purpose of this experiment was to analyze undergraduates’ sense of belonging and on-campus involvement. Previous research found that sense of belonging is important in students’ persistence in college. I hypothesized that the amount of time a student is involved on campus would be correlated with their sense of belonging, exhibiting a curvilinear relationship. An exploratory hypothesis was that students’ perception of overcommitment would be correlated with sense of belonging. Participants (n = 256) were asked to fill out a questionnaire. Results showed that sense of belonging and on-campus involvement were related in a linear fashion, as the more involved a student was the more a student felt that they belonged. Results also showed a statistically significant and weak correlation between sense of belonging and average time spent in on-campus activities. Thus, creating opportunities for underclassmen to be involved on campus with their upperclassmen peers may improve retention.

THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ATHLETIC TRAINERS AND THEIR PATIENTS

Sierra Estep
Department of Kinesiology

Context​: Patient-centered care is becoming the gold standard for treating patients. Forming a positive relationship with patients is an essential component. Limited research exists on the relationship between athletic trainers and their patients. ​Objective: To better understand the relationship between athletic trainers and their patients. ​Design: Qualitative research. ​Setting: Individual interviews. ​Patients or Other Participants: Seven athletes who had undergone rehabilitation with their athletic trainers. ​Data Collection and Analysis​: Data were collected through semistructured interviews and converted into themes. ​Results: One major theme emerged: qualities of an athletic trainer. From this overarching theme, three subthemes were also identified: trust, caring, and willingness to listen. ​Conclusions: The qualities that an athletic trainer exhibit can greatly affect the relationship between themselves and their patient. Those found to be most important are their willingness to listen and ability to care. These qualities form trust and a positive relationship. While evaluating and treating injuries, it is important for athletic trainers to also focus on forming a relationship with the patient.

EXAMINATION OF AN INFOGRAPHIC’S IMPACT ON THE KNOWLEDGE OF PERSONAL HYGIENE AND SKIN INFECTION PREVENTION IN ATHLETES

Kendranne Ford
Department of Kinesiology

Athletes are one of the groups that are the most at risk of contracting a skin infection because of their proximity to one another. Skin infections are some of the most common illnesses to befall athletes, even more common than concussions or musculoskeletal injuries. Proper education and practice of good hygiene techniques, like hand washing, frequent showering, and frequent washing of equipment, are important. This research aims to establish whether or not an infographic can improve the personal hygiene knowledge of collegiate athletes. The study began with participants taking a survey to assess their personal hygiene knowledge, then the participants were instructed to read an infographic and take the survey a second time. The results of the study showed that there was no significant change in the participants’ knowledge between the surveys. This could mean one of two things, that athletes are already taught the proper techniques of personal hygiene or that there should be further research done on the subject to determine a true difference.

EARLY MALADAPTIVE SCHEMAS AS PREDICTORS OF PERCEIVED SOCIAL SUPPORT IN THE CHURCH

Emily D. Glassman
Department of Psychology

Early maladaptive schemas (EMS) are frameworks developed in adolescence that influence how an individual interprets themselves and the world around them. Because different families of origin can emphasize different ways of behaving and thinking, various types of schemas may form with differing severity levels. With EMS impacting perception, the current study aims to research how these schemas can influence one’s perception of social support, particularly in a church setting where social support can be a huge component. Using a multiple regression, the results suggest that the emotional deprivation schema is a significant predictor of low perceived social support in the church. Future research could similarly replicate the present study recruiting a sample that is both religiously involved and has received a mental illness diagnosis to have a wider schema representation. This may allow the results to better indicate which schemas are more likely to predict low social support.

TRI-S: ONLINE REGISTRATION AND BILLING

Matthew Gordon, Samita Neupane, Apekshya Koirala, and Ally Wallace
Department of Computer Science

The Computer Science Senior Design Capstone class undertook a project to develop a prototype software for Anderson Univerity’s Tri-S program to simplify their considerable work flow by creating a simple web application that can keep track of all Tri-S related data. Currently, the registration and payment system at Tri-S involves an Excel spreadsheet, an Access database, and a printed “White Book” to track registration and payment statuses for each Tri-S trip.

Over two semesters, an initial version of the software was developed with the front-end code and back-end supportneededforafullfeaturedapplication. Studentscanfillouttheapplicationonlineandregisterforatrip. They are also able to fill out a release form, health form and evaluation form online. In addition to that, the Tri-S staff are able to login as admin and view the list of the students registered for trips and the related information.

In the future, students will be able to submit payments through the web portal using a credit card through the Square API, in addition to making payments in person at the Tri-S office. Using the app, Tri-S staff will be able to view each student’s balance, generate payment reminder emails to the students, and send forms to the AU Business Office.

The Agile software development model was used to execute one-week sprints over two semesters. Slack, GitHub, and Pivotal Tracker were used to manage the project’s source code and sprint backlog. Periodic reviews were conducted by Tri-S staff to ensure the product would satisfy their needs and workflow, with the feedback used to improve the next iteration of the application. The technologies used to develop the front-end server included JavaScript and React.js. The back-end server was developed using Node.js. Authentication was achieved using Auth0. A prototype for the online payment service was developed using the Square developer API.

BARRIERS TO HEALTHCARE IN THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC

Avery Heatwole
School of Nursing

Without the basic care to treat acute, chronic, and emergent medical conditions, thousands of people each year living in the Dominican Republic are subjected to preventable suffering because of barriers to healthcare. This dilemma was scrutinized with a comprehensive literature review that provided insight to three common themes of barriers preventing healthcare availability: limited access to medical care due to the geography and the lack of resources; a general lack of knowledge and awareness related to untrained views on required treatment or lifestyle modifications; and stigma that stems from cultural, societal, and religious beliefs about commonly found infections, particularly STDs. These findings from the literature review lead to a proposed generalized survey taken by people living in the Dominican Republic in order to further investigate their perceived barriers to healthcare. The purpose of this descriptive, qualitative design study is to examine the current problems contributing to these barriers and to foster engagement with the local people of the Dominican Republic to assess their knowledge concerning the importance of medical care access. In order for the Dominican Republic to escalate salubriousness within the country, their barriers to healthcare need to be addressed and eradicated in order to promote citizen well-being and strengthen their population.

PARENTAL RELATIONSHIPS AND ATTACHMENT AS PREDICTORS OF ROMANTIC COMPETENCE

Hannah M. Helton
Department of Psychology

This study examined how parental intimacy, the strength of attachment and gender predicted romantic competence. It was a correlational study and each participant was given the same survey and response options. The participants were college-aged adults (n = 224). Findings revealed that the strength of attachment and parental intimacy together explained a significant amount of variance in romantic competence, however only strength of attachment was a significant individual predictor. The implications of this study show that the relationship a college-aged student has with their parents may be a strong identifier in their own romantic relationships.

UNIVERSAL SELF-SUSTAINING PLANT GROWTH CHAMBER

Charles Kidd, Kenneth Parson, Bradley Rothaar, and Brice Thompson
Department of Physical Sciences & Engineering

Current methods used to grow plants for the Anderson University Biology Department are becoming increasingly ineffective with the lack of technology growth within the department. Because of this concern recent efforts have been made to create a universal self-sustaining plant growth chamber. There are many industrially manufactured plant growth chambers on the market, but very few of them are within the Anderson University Biology Department’s budget. Our research aims to establish a design and a product that controls temperature, humidity, and lighting for the growth of plants chosen by Dr. Kaitlyn Butler. Initial studies began by investigating the possible cabinet designs and electronic setups. Our results were inconclusive due to the rapid development of COVID-19. However, it was expected that the chamber would have been operational before the end of the semester.

HOW TO PLAN SUCCESSFUL EVENTS ON COLLEGE CAMPUSES

Heather Krapfl
Falls School of Business

Events are always happening, and college campuses are no exception. The variety of events and needs that each event has make college campuses so unique. How different people plan events on their campus leads to different outcomes. Some event succeed and some fail, and some go back and forth between the two. There is a long list of variables that go into event planning, and each department that is planning an event needs to be on the same page, continually planning successful events. I have done research on Anderson University’s campus events and published event planning and management research to understand what all goes into event planning. I complied all this to create a flowchart that can be followed, along with the help of a specialized department on campus, to plan events that are much more likely to be successful and enjoyable for all persons involved.

DUAL OPERATED NAUTICAL AND GROUND PADDLE CAR

Ian Leatherman, CJ Yeagy, and Connor Todd
Department of Physical Sciences & Engineering

The group associated with the Dual Operated Nautical and Ground Paddle Car have been in the works of constructing an amphibious vehicle that will allow any user between the ages of 15 and 65 to easily operate it both on dry terrain and bodies of water. With the paddle car, two people can use it to pedal on land just like a standard bicycle car, but whenever the user wants to bring it to use it in bodies of water, such as rivers and/or bodies of water, they can simply pedal into the water and use the paddles attached to the back axles and use it as a regular paddle boat. An electric motor will be used to power the paddle car to enable it to navigate both land and water should the users decide they want to rest. In order to complete this project, the group would have to abide by the Indiana boating laws and test the finished model at Shadyside Park with the permission of the officials of the city of Anderson. The group would be doing a series of extensive tests pertaining to its functionality and how comfortable it is for other users.

RULES AND REGULATIONS OF THE KOSHER DIET ASSOCIATED WITH THE JEWISH RELIGION

Joslyn Leverett
School of Nursing

Religiosity holds utmost value among many people within the Jewish population. Diet attributes to their religious practice; therefore, diet holds significant value to those of Jewish faith. Adherence to the kosher diet fosters a deep connection to their system of belief. Because of the importance of religious practice to the followers of Judaism, a comprehensive literature review was completed to identify rules and ​regulations of the kosher diet. The literature review included three themes: law, process, and consumption. Knowing the history of the Jewish law behind the kosher diet can help people to understand the weight behind these religious practices. Knowing the process, more specifically the slaughter techniques, of kosher can help to understand what can and cannot be consumed. The consumption theme provides specific rules, such as what is and what is not kosher. The purpose of this ethnographic, qualitative, descriptive study is to explore the congruences or gaps between the research and the cultural perspective of Jews in regards to kosher diet adherence. The proposed research would use a generalized survey to analyze the benefits and barriers of following kosher diet regulations from those within the Jewish faith.

FAIRMOUNT CAMP: CAMP REGISTRATION AND FORM PROCESSING

Stephanie Maynard, Conner Page, Michael Hudson Shimanyula, and Joy Shaffer
Department of Computer Science

The Computer Science Senior Design Capstone class undertook a project to develop a prototype software for Fairmount Camp, located in Fairmount, Indiana. Fairmount Camp offers many camps for children and adults to come and enjoy fellowship. Their registration process is currently more manual and requires a lot more work for the camp employees to get each camper registered and to help the parents/guardians filling out the forms. The new process will have an easier workflow for the parents and camp employees to get all of the necessary information for each camper.

Over two semesters, an initial version of the software was developed with the front-end code and back-end support needed for a full featured application. The application includes the ability to register for four different camps, and submit the necessary forms including the camp registration forms, medical forms, and permission forms. The guardians can view information about their registrations on a profile page, while the admin page allows the owners of the camp to be able to pull information from the database. In this page, the administrators can pull data on the registered users, the camper data, the child-pickup data, and also view all campers registered from each specific church.

In the future, there are plans to implement payments which will involve accepting payments from the users, allowing pastors to pay for their church members and being able to see who has paid or not. In addition we plan to enable the administrator to edit form data directly on the page, enable autocomplete on searches performed on the pages and allow users to register for overnight camping at campsites.

The Agile software development model was used to execute one-week sprints over two semesters. Slack, GitHub, and Pivotal Tracker were used to manage the project’s source code and sprint backlog. Periodic reviews were conducted by Fairmount Camp staff to ensure the product would satisfy their needs and workflow, with the feedback used to improve the next iteration of the application. The technologies used to develop the front-end server included JavaScript and React.js. The back-end server was developed using Node.js. Authentication was achieved using Auth0.

THE EFFECTS OF PRIMING WITH THE MEDIA ON PEOPLE’S PERCEPTION OF MASS SHOOTINGS

Reece McDaniel
Department of Psychology

The purpose of this study was to see if priming people with mass shooting related news headlines would affect their perception of if they would be a victim in a mass shooting. Previous research looked at priming with advertisements and how they affected people’s specific choices and found that advertisements do affect people’s choices. It was hypothesized (H1) that the mass shooting media primed group would have a higher perception of risk compared to the neutral media primed group and that (H2) both groups would have a higher perceived risk compared to the actual national mass shooting rate. Participants included 140 people from Amazon Mechanical Turk. Each participant completed a demographic survey, then they were randomly assigned to the mass shooting media primed group or the neutral media primed group. Hypothesis one was not supported while hypothesis two was supported. Future research could examine what aspects of media may be most likely to influence perceptions.

DIAGNOSIS AND INTERNALIZED STIGMA AS PREDICTORS OF PUBLIC STIGMA

Makayla J. Miller
Department of Psychology

While prior research has examined whether public stigma of mental illness predicts internalized stigma, I examined whether diagnosis and internalized stigma would predict a person’s level of public mental health stigma. A sample of 160 college students answered a public stigma questionnaire, were asked if they self-identified as having a mental illness, and then answered an internalized stigma questionnaire if they identified as having a mental illness. Using an independent t-test, I found that those who did not identify as having a mental illness had higher levels of public stigma than those with mental illness. Based on a simple regression, I found that higher levels of internalized stigma predicted higher levels of public stigma. With this information, new and improved anti-stigma campaigns can be developed to, from time of diagnosis, help combat both the stigma we feel within ourselves and the stigma we can perceive from others around us.

RACIOETHNICITY AND BELONGING AS PREDICTORS OF PERCEIVED LEADERSHIP EFFICACY

Alana L. Moore
Department of Psychology

Leadership Development has become a pivotal component to all educational enterprises (Dugan et al., 2012). However, as much as leadership coincides with education, diversity and belonging also are key components to the educational atmosphere (Dugan et al., 2013). The purpose of the current study was to examine whether college-aged students’ racioethnicity and level of belonging would predict their perceived leadership efficacy. Participants were recruited from a small Midwestern liberal arts university. All participants took a survey consisting of measures of sense of belonging and leadership efficacy. Although no difference was found in leadership efficacy based on racioethnicity, belonging was found to predict levels of leadership efficacy. However, further research should examine the experience of minority students in predominantly Caucasian universities instead of examining the socially constructed ideas of race and ethnicity.

DANCER PERCEPTIONS OF INJURY AND HEALTH CARE PRACTITIONERS

Lillian Morrison
Department of Kinesiology

When experiencing dance-related pain or injury, dancers have unique help-seeking behaviors and expectations of what level of physical discomfort they should endure. However, research has not been conducted to explore how dancer mentalities about pain and injury affect dancer mentalities about use of health care. Therefore, this study sought to fill the gaps in current research by examining what relationship may exist between dancer perceptions of pain/injury and dancer perceptions of health care professionals. The findings of this phenomenological research support other conclusions in the literature in terms of dancers distinguishing between two types of pain and dancers’ willingness to dance through pain. This study also recorded reports of dancers feeling widely misunderstood by the general population, pushing through injury, and having mixed experiences with health care practitioners (HCPs). This indicates that although dance is a highly-specialized form of artistic activity, dancers as patients may be lacking one of the most fundamental and universal aspects of the health care experience: patient- centered care. Future research should investigate the influence of dance teachers on the “push through pain” dance culture, the prominence of dance medicine specialists in the wider medical field, and the relationship between dancer communication of needs and dancer reliance on dance specialists.

THE EFFECT OF MINDFULNESS-BASED INTERVENTION ON COLLEGE AGED STUDENTS TEST ANXIETY

Cameron Mudd
Department of Psychology

The purpose of this experiment was to look at the effects of a Mindfulness-based intervention on college aged students test anxiety. It was hypothesized that college students who participated in a mindfulness-based intervention prior to taking a test will have lower test anxiety than students who did not receive mindfulness-based intervention prior to taking their test. Participants (n = 21) were asked to watch and participate in a video either focused on mindfulness-based interventions, or the control video. After the videos, participants were asked to participate in answering demographic question and the Revised Text Anxiety Scale (Hagtvet & Benson, 1997). Results showed that there was no significant change in test anxiety after the mindfulness-based interventions. However, more research needs to be done on college aged students test anxiety on a larger scale.

FEMALE SEX WORKERS LIVING WITH HIV IN THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC

Kelli Mueller
School of Nursing

The Dominican Republic is home to the second-largest proportion of individuals diagnosed with human immunodeficiency virus throughout the Caribbean. One of the largest at-risk groups in the Dominican Republic is female sex workers. Because of this concern, an extensive literature review was completed to investigate factors contributing to the identification of this group as an at-risk population. Three recurring themes were found within the review: stigmas, both perceived and experienced; consistency of condom use; and overall lack of knowledge of HIV. The most significant factor is the lack of knowledge about HIV as this knowledge deficit further influences stigmas and condom use with female sex workers. It also correlates with the lower levels of education and poor health literacy within this at-risk population. The described literature review resulted in a proposed research study surveying women in the Dominican Republic to assess their overall knowledge of HIV and its transmission. This qualitative, descriptive study aimed to highlight the gaps in education and resources available to this at-risk population.

THE RELIGIOUS WHITE: HOW THE MYTH OF ABORTION ECLIPSED THE REALITY OF SEGREGATION IN NARRATIVES CONCERNING MOBILIZATION OF THE RELIGIOUS RIGHT

Becca Peach
Department of History & Political Science

The most common narrative about the Culture Wars points to Roe v. Wade as the watershed moment that provided impetus for the creation of the Religious Right. However, scholars have recently come to suggest that such an account could be an ahistorical narrative. The alternative narrative proposes that the Religious Right formed and activated to oppose the issue of school desegregation — not abortion. This paper examines the respective validity of these competing narratives by measuring religious actors’s level of involvement in early Supreme Court cases concerning these issues. It becomes evident that religious institutions and individuals were much more active in opposing the issue of desegregation than of abortion when the topics were first raised in the 1970s. These findings suggest that the common narrative, focused on abortion, must be re-evaluated and a new narrative, focused on desegregation, must be considered. This could hold multiple implications for our study of faith and political behavior.

COMPUTER VISION ACTING AS AN E-TRAINER

Davis Peterson, Eli Leman, and Iwan Sandjaja*
Department of Physical Sciences & Engineering

Computer vision is growing rapidly in the field of technology. Through the use of cameras, linear algebra, and computer vision algorithms, computers are able to observe the world, track object motion, and count repeated movement. Our research shows that computer vision can be used in the field of sports. Our goal is to create programs rooted in computer vision that can act as personal e-trainers for athletes by tracking their reps, collecting data, and taking their skills to the next level by giving them advice. In our two applications, a push-up counter, and a ping-pong ball tracker, we utilize algorithms that track motion to count reps in training exercises. Our results demonstrate that computer vision is able to be a personal e-trainer and should be fully developed and made accessible to every athlete.

Ping Pong Ball Tracker
Pushup Counter

PERCEIVED SOCIAL SUPPORT AS A PREDICTOR OF ACHIEVEMENT EMOTIONS

Daisy Ray
Department of Psychology

Achievement Emotions are derived from Pekrun’s (2005) Control-Value Theory. These eight emotions are enjoyment, hope, pride, anger, anxiety, shame, hopelessness, and boredom. The present study investigated perceived social support as a predictor of these eight achievement emotions. Participants (n = 192) were instructed to complete an online survey which consisted of providing informed consent, completing demographic questions, the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (1988), and Part II of the Achievement Emotions Questionnaire (2005). The first hypothesis was supported in that there was a positive relationship between positive emotions and social support, and a negative relationship between negative emotions and social support. The second hypothesis was exploratory and partially supported, with family being the only significant individual predictor for hope, pride, shame, and hopelessness. This study further emphasizes the importance of social support for students.

INVESTIGATING DEVELOPMENT OF AUTONOMOUS VEHICLES WITH COMPUTER VISION

Davis Peterson and James Robinson
Department of Computer Science

The autonomous evKart project is a senior project started in the school year of 2019-2020 by a group of two computer engineering majors, one electrical engineering major, one mechanical engineering major, and two computer science majors. This project began largely because of the success that Anderson University had in the 2019 evGrand Prix, where the EvKarts were driven by remote control. In 2020, the evGrand Prix opened up an autonomous division for the 2020 competition. The goal of this project was to produce an EvKart that could compete autonomously in this new division.

Through the Computer Science Senior Design Capstone and an Independent Study Course, our computer science team explored the different technologies needed to build an autonomous kart. This included researching and experimenting with ultrasonic sensors, LIDAR, and OpenCV. We believe the NVIDIA Jetson AGX Xavier and Intel® RealSenseTM Depth Camera D435i are a solid hardware foundation for the computer vision control system of the EvKart. Foundational concepts in computer vision such as Canny Edge Detection and Hough Line Transforms would allow a machine learning platform to identify obstacles and roadways, allowing the system to predict successful paths to traverse the race course.

Research on data collection and machine learning will help in the transition of this project to the next team. A future development for the project is to integrate machine learning with the other technologies to be used in driving the kart around some track. The team will need to incorporate object detection and collision avoidance to make it more fully autonomous, and also collect relevant data that will best train the EvKart for racing conditions. This data will be fed into a machine learning algorithm, likely using TensorFlow, that will determine the best instructions, such as steering angle and velocity, for the kart’s future path. This requires a model to be used for the training data in order to achieve some success, and a set of testing conditions that would be used to validate how well it would perform in an unknown environment.

The team realized that the scope of this project required more than a single year of development, especially with the COVID-19 pandemic, which cut the development of this project short. We look forward to the progress that next year’s seniors will make towards a successful autonomous kart.

EFFECT OF CHAIR DESIGN ON POSTURE AND COMFORT AMONGST COLLEGE STUDENTS

Emily Stout
Department of Kinesiology

Sitting for extended periods of time can lead to negative health risks. Sitting with poor posture can further exacerbate those issues. Comfort is often the reason people adopt poor posture. It is important then to look at how the chairs on college campuses impact students’; posture. In this study, college students were asked to sit in three different chairs and their posture was analyzed using ROSA and comfort was tested using a visual analogue scale. The results of the study had a significant difference in regards to posture but not in regards to comfort. It is important to continue to look at chair design and the impact it has on comfort and posture.

THE IMPLICATIONS OF POWER POSING ON THE ACADEMIC SELF-EFFICACY OF COLLEGE STUDENTS

Jordan Strawn
Department of Psychology

Power posing is either produced as high-power, open posture and wide-spread limbs, or low-power, closed posture with limbs close to the body (Carney et al., 2010). Academic self-efficacy is defined as a belief in self-ability in dealing with various academic situations, e.g. a test (Fan & Chen, 2001). The current experiment included 22 college aged, full time Anderson University students that participated voluntarily. After being randomly assigned to a group, each participant performed two predetermined poses followed by a self-reported survey measuring their academic self-efficacy. My hypothesis expected participants who performed high-power poses to have a significantly higher academic self-efficacy score. After analyzing data via a two-sample ​t​-test, there were no significant differences between the groups. Future research should examine other procedures which may positively influence the academic self-efficacy of college students.

AN EXPLORATION OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MISSION TRIP EXPERIENCE AND ETHNOCENTRISM

Natalie Marie Watson
Department of Psychology

This study was conducted to determine if there was a relationship between ethnocentrism and mission trip experience. Participants were 230 undergraduate students from a small Christian liberal arts university. Participants completed a survey that included background questions regarding their mission trip experience, and a measure of ethnocentrism. For my first hypothesis, I compared average ethnocentrism scores between participants who had and had not been on a mission trip. The results showed that ethnocentrism was lower with those who had been on a mission trip. For my second hypothesis, I conducted Pearson Correlations between ethnocentrism score and variables related to length of mission trip and amount of contact with indigenous populations. The variables showed no statistically significant relationships. These findings can help us understand more about potential benefits of short-term mission trips, and be used to plan these trips to have a more impactful experience.

WOMEN AND HIV IN THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC

Sadie Whybrew
School of Nursing and the Honors Program

Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is a communicable disease without a cure that affects thousands of people in the Dominican Republic (DR) every single day. There are several factors that influence its spread, such as the role of women in society, including female sex workers (FSW), sigma surrounding the disease, and potential barriers to receiving care. This research showed that women in the DR have little say over their bodies, as men are the dominating force of society, in monogamous relationships and among the FSW. The barriers to care and stigma associated with HIV must be addressed in order to make a change. This proposed study seeks to interview women in the Dominican Republic through a qualitative, non-experimental pilot study seeking to further investigate their understanding and education of HIV, how it is transmitted, and their personal role in prevention of further spread.

USING COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS (CFD) TO IMPROVE THE AERODYNAMICS OF A CAR

Robby Woolums, Larry George*
Department of Physical Sciences & Engineering

One of the most important considerations on many products is how the product will react to a fluid. In the past, fluid dynamics were tested by hand and required physical models to validate the hand tests. Today, fluid dynamics using computer simulation (CFD) has become a necessity for engineers to quickly and accurately predict how objects will react to a liquid or gaseous fluid. One of these programs, Ansys, has become an industry standard. Ansys is used for fluid dynamic testing for products ranging from water pipes, to air conditioning, to race cars at the top of their performance bracket. This project was created with the goal of using a CFD program to lower the drag of a vehicle and investigate some of the best ways to lower drag. This presentation on the explorative project displays how real-world engineers can efficiently modify designs to best fit their function, how powerful CFD can be, and how design aspects and choices affect the drag of an object.